1. Apa itu TOEFL?
Tes ini dikembangkan dan diselenggarakan oleh ETS (Educational Testing Service) sebuah lembaga nirlaba yang berkedudukan di Amerika Serikat. TOEFL pertama kali diselenggarakan pada tahun 1964. Nilai TOEFL biasanya merupakan salah satu persyaratan masuk di sejumlah 2400 perguruan tinggi di Amerika, Kanada dan 80 negara lainnya di dunia (ETS: 1999).
2. Kemampuan apa saja yang diujikan dalam tes TOEFL?
Ada tiga bagian tes TOEFL (Institutional TOEFL) yang harus dikerjakan oleh peserta tes. Bagian pertama adalah soal-soal yang mengukur kemampuan Listening Comprehension dalam jumlah 50 soal, Structure & Written Expression 40 soal, dan Reading Comprehension 50 soal. Keseluruhan soal dibuat dalam bentuk pilihan berganda (kecuali untuk Computer-Based TOEFL ada soal esai yang menguji kemampuan mengarang peserta dalam bahasa Inggris serta variasi lain bentuk soal seperti menjodohkan, meng-highlight kata tertentu yang ada kaitannya dengan main idea suatu bacaan, dll.).
Durasi keseluruhan tes berlangsung dalam waktu kurang lebih 120 menit untuk Paper Based-TOEFL, dan kurang lebih 240 menit untuk Computer Based-TOEFL. Waktu yang relatif lama untuk Computer Based TOEFL ini sudah termasuk prosedur tutorial (petunjuk awal yang akan diperlihatkan di layar komputer ketika seseorang mengerjakan jenis tes ini).
INSTITUTIONAL TOEFL (English Version)
International TOEFL and Institutional TOEFL
The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is a standardized test recognized worlwide. It measures the English proficiency of people whose native language is not English. The test consists of two kinds: International TOEFL and Institutional TOEFL. Before deciding which TOEFL test to take, people should carefully decide what purpose they will use the score for.
Students who need TOEFL scores for admission to universities and colleges should take the International TOEFL test. Currently, International TOEFL is offered in internet-based. It is also known as Next Generation TOEFL (NG TOEFL).
The Institutional TOEFL differs from the other TOEFL testing program because it gives qualified institutions and agencies the opportunity to administer the TOEFL test on their own and to use their own facilities and staff. Since Institutional TOEFL is not a fully-secure test, the scores should not be used for university admission or other high stakes purposes, but they are reported only to the institutions requiring.
Each year, more than 1,500 institutions and agencies from around the globe administer more than 350,000 Intitutional TOEFL test using their staff and facilities.
Why use Institutional TOEFL?
- Universities and Colleges; Many reputable universities and colleges in Indonesia have been using Intitutional TOEFL as part of their entry exam for new students. Some graduate and professional pgorams also use Institutional TOEFL as a graduation requirement. In fact, Institutional TOEFL has been widely used by many universities and colleges as an English Proficiency Test to screen or evaluate their teachers and faculty members.
- Language Institutions; Institutional TOEFL can be used to place students in appropriate levels or assess proficiency at the beginning and end of courses. Also, it can be used to determine academic readiness as well as to measure program effectiveness.
- Scholarship Donors; Most local and international donors offering scholarships to Indonesian students require Institutional TOEFL as a screening tool.
- Government Agencies; Many departments and other government agencies in Indonesia are currently using Institutional TOEFL to screen their staff for an overseas exchange programs as well as to evaluate the English proficiency of professional-level staff and make assignment decisions.
- Corporates; In the last few years, there has been a significant growth in the numbers of companies using Institutional TOEFL for their HR purposes. A lot of major companies, both local and multinational, are using Institutional TOEFL as a screening tool when recruiting new staff. Some other are using Institutional TOEFL to make decisions regarding job-promotion for their managerial-level staff.
International TOEFL measures non-native speakers’ skills at the intermediate to advanced levels. This two-hour exam uses an academic context to evaluate skills in three sections:
- Listening Comprehension – 50 items; This section measures the ability to understand English as it is spoken by the English native speakers. It contains three parts, each administered by audio, which are short conversations, long conversations, and short talks or lectures.
- Structure & Written Expression – 40 items; This section is designed to measure the examinee’s ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English.
- Reading Comprehension – 50 items; This section is designed to measure the ability to read and understand short passages similar in topic and style to those found in American universities and colleges. Examinees read a variety of short passages on academic subjects. Each passage is followed by a number of questions about the material. To avoid creating an advantage to individuals in any one field of study, sufficient context is provided so that no subject-specific familiarity with the subject matter is required to answer the questions.
Each institution that requires Institutional TOEFL scores determines for itself what scores, or ranges, are acceptable. These requirements vary from institution to institution, depending on such factors as the applicants’ field and level of study. Institutions are sent three types of score reports: institution score reports, student score reports (to be distributed to student), and score roster with all student test scores for that test administration.
Score Scale: 310 – 677